The collapse of FTX has brought to light the crucial need for a robust system to evaluate the solvency of cryptocurrency exchanges. As recent events have demonstrated, the current methods are insufficient and often ad-hoc, leaving investors vulnerable to significant losses. To address this issue, researchers from the Complexity Science Hub (CSH), in collaboration with the Financial Market Authority (FMA) and the Austrian National Bank (OeNB), have proposed a new approach to assessing the solvency of virtual asset service providers (VASPs).
Traditional financial institutions follow established solvency assessment procedures to ensure the stability and security of their operations. However, the evaluation of solvency among VASPs, which are involved in the cryptoasset sector, lacks a systematic approach. One of the primary reasons for this is the nature of cryptocurrencies themselves. Assets are held in pseudonymous wallets on various blockchains, making it challenging to assess and disclose their full extent. Additionally, these assets are often not or only partially disclosed in available reports, such as balance sheets.
The researchers propose two key ways to enhance the solvency assessment of VASPs. Firstly, they suggest that VASPs should disclose their crypto asset wallet addresses and provide additional metadata describing the use of these wallets. This transparency would allow independent auditors to verify whether a VASP has access to the funds associated with its on-chain wallets. Secondly, VASPs should separate their balance reports into crypto and fiat assets and report them at appropriate intervals. This would provide a clearer picture of the proportion of assets from traditional currencies and crypto assets.
To examine the current state of VASP solvency, the researchers analyzed 24 VASPs registered with the Financial Market Authority in Austria. They compared the known crypto asset holdings with the balance data from the trade register and information from regulatory authorities. The findings revealed partial consistency between the known crypto asset holdings and the balance data. This inconsistency can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, not all VASPs separate their balance sheets for crypto and fiat assets, making it difficult to assess the composition of their assets. Additionally, VASPs employ different methods to manage their crypto asset transactions, further complicating the evaluation. Lastly, the crypto asset holdings of VASPs are not easily visible to third parties.
The collapse of FTX serves as a stark reminder that even large-scale cryptocurrency exchanges can slide into insolvency, posing risks and potential losses for their customers. The research conducted by the Complexity Science Hub aims to improve the analysis and evaluation of VASP solvency to mitigate such risks in the future. By implementing the suggested measures of transparency and regular reporting, the cryptocurrency industry can enhance its accountability and provide investors with greater confidence.
Assessing the solvency of cryptocurrency exchanges is paramount in protecting the interests of investors and ensuring the stability of the market. The current ad-hoc methods fall short in providing a comprehensive evaluation of VASP solvency. The proposed approach put forth by the Complexity Science Hub, in collaboration with regulatory bodies, offers valuable insights on how to address these shortcomings. By addressing issues of transparency and reporting, the cryptocurrency industry can take significant strides towards establishing a more secure and trustworthy environment for investors. It is imperative that these measures are implemented to safeguard the future of the cryptoasset sector.