The world around us is constantly changing, and this includes the materials that make up our universe. Scientists have recently made an exciting observation regarding a new decay mode, shedding light on the instability and transformation of certain isotopes. Specifically, they have discovered a previously unseen decay in oxygen-13, where it breaks down into three helium nuclei, a proton, and a positron. This groundbreaking finding provides valuable insights into decay processes and the properties of nuclei prior to their decay.
In this remarkable study, researchers closely monitored the behavior of a single nucleus and measured the resulting breakup products. Through their observations, they observed the decay of oxygen-13, a lighter form of oxygen consisting of eight protons and five neutrons. This decay is characterized by the breaking apart of the nucleus into three helium nuclei, a proton, and a positron—an antimatter counterpart of an electron.
While scientists have previously observed various modes of radioactive decay, this new decay mode is the first to involve the emission of alpha particles—three helium nuclei—and a proton following beta-decay. This unique discovery expands our understanding of decay processes and offers valuable insights into the behavior of nuclei leading up to their decay.
To uncover this new decay mode, researchers utilized a particle accelerator known as a cyclotron at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. They harnessed the power of the cyclotron to produce a beam of oxygen-13 nuclei with high energy levels, equivalent to around 10% of the speed of light. This beam was then directed into a specialized piece of equipment called the Texas Active Target Time Projection Chamber (TexAT TPC).
Within the TexAT TPC, the oxygen-13 material was contained in a carbon dioxide gas-filled detector. Over the course of roughly ten milliseconds, the oxygen-13 nucleus would undergo beta-plus decay, emitting a positron and a neutrino. To monitor the decay process, researchers implanted oxygen-13 nuclei into the detector one at a time and waited for them to decay.
Following the decays, the researchers used a computer program to analyze the resulting data, specifically focusing on the tracks left by the emitted particles in the gas. By carefully examining these tracks, the scientists were able to identify the extremely rare events where four particles were emitted following beta-decay. These rare events occurred only once per 1,200 decays, highlighting the significance of the observations made in this study.
The discovery of this new decay mode in oxygen-13 has far-reaching implications for our understanding of nuclear properties and the mechanisms behind radioactive decay. By unraveling the complexities of decay processes and the behavior of nuclei, scientists can further refine their knowledge of fundamental particles and the forces that govern them.
This groundbreaking study has unveiled a new decay mode observed in oxygen-13, where it breaks down into three helium nuclei, a proton, and a positron. Through cutting-edge experimental techniques and meticulous data analysis, scientists have expanded our understanding of decay processes, offering valuable insights into the behavior of nuclei leading up to their decay. This discovery paves the way for future advancements in the field of nuclear physics and opens new avenues for exploration into the fundamental nature of matter and its transformations.